The history of the pearl island Margarita
The natives of the island were the Guaiqueri Indians. They lived on the fishing and dressed up with pleasure with a by-product of the mussels, the pearls. When Christoph Kolumbus discovered in 1498 the Eiland, struck him and his people this rare jewellery immediately. Thus the exploitation of the rich pearl benches before Margarita and the neighbouring island began Cubagua. Here it was also called where the first settlement of the Spaniards originated Nueva C?diz. Since beginning of the 16th century the looting of the rare treasures was sped up systematically. Where the Caribbean Indians in the beginning still voluntarily for them unknown articles of exchange (knife, clothes etc.) dived for pearls, quite crude power was soon exercised: The divers had to go, weighted with a stone in the legs, quickly to the pearl benches and oyster beds hinabsinken, small baskets fastened around the nape allow to fill and pull up themselves again then with the help of a rope. Many left her life in the depth. Moreover, the pearl reasons were fast exhausted. A big earthquake and seaquake made the islands Margarita, Coche and Cubagua in 1541 uninhabitable and let the interest of the European exploiters tyre in long time. The German businessman's family of the Welser received at the beginning of the 16th century the whole area of today's Venezuela from German emperor Karl V. as a fief. The attempts to make it an economically remunerative colony, nevertheless, failed. In 1577 the country came again under Spanish management. By the end of 18th century the aspiration for independence of the white colonists meanwhile born in the country began. The black slaves imported from Africa were thereby encouraged also to the uprising. The movement on the islands was firmly tied together of course with the independence process on the Venezuelan mainland. The fight mind of the islanders introduced the name Nueva Esparta (Neu-Sparta) in Margarita, Coche and Cubagua. This provincial name stood also on the independence document signed in 1811 of Venezuela. Nevertheless, the first republic did not stand firm to the still numerous followers of the Spanish crown long and the fight still went on some years. Only in 1821 Simon Bolivar succeeded finally in protecting the independence the country. To heroes of the warlike confusion on the island belonged above all the governor Nueva Espartas Juan Bautista Arismendi and the general Santiago Marino.
Under the big liberator Bolivar Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador united to the republic of Grosskolumbien. Nevertheless, nationalistic forces let the dream of combined South America fail. Venezuela resigned in 1829 from the republic of Gro?kolumbien and arranged Bolivar to the resignation. Since beginning of this century the north Americans increased her influence in southern America and the US dollar also flowed to Venezuela. The discovery of different mineral resources, in particular however, almost inexhaustibly appearing oil deposits opened unexpected perspectives. The standard of living of the average population considerably rose. On account of the black gold other industrial branches as well as the agriculture were completely neglected. Food had to be imported in the fertile country. Venezuela got in the dependence of one single product - the oil.
In as black Friday confessed 18th of February, 1983 the whole system collapsed like a map house in itself. The release of the up to now by the state subsidised prices released an immense inflation wave. Today the average population is glad if it can supply herself with the goods of vital importance. Isla Margarita was explained in 1975 to the free trade harbour and thereby duty-free shopping paradise.